You can also use these approaches via the Affinity Designer paste inside command, using means you create a parent / children relationship in a slight different way and you are limiting the bounds of the children to the parent's design, nothing outside of that area will be seen. The key panel is the layers panel, you can use that to see all the relationships of the various shape designs used with this combination of paths. Select some paths and copy them via the keyboard or menu. Goto another path and then select that, goto the edit menu again and use the command.
You will now see the selected path but beneath that you will see all the paths and they are inside the design and you can continue to manipulate those designs such as scale them or add effects and adjustments etc as well as rotate them but they will be confined by the main parent path. To manipulate the underlying path, simply select it in the layers panel and then re-size or rotate that design or change the color. If you want to manipulate the entire container, click the parent and then manipulate that instead and not the children paths.
Create a large circle and then create a dot in a smaller size and different color. Place it over the bigger design and then use the cut and then the paste inside command to add it to the bigger design, If you drag the dot towards the edge as you go outside of the circle you will see it cut off at the edge. Hold down the alt / option key and duplicate the dot and place in multiple places with the circle. If you look at the layers panel you will see all are slightly to the right of the parent. You can also resize them as well. You can also fill them with other colors or keep them all the same.
You can do same as above but with type using the same command. Create some text and then create some more text but a lot smaller. Cut the smaller design from the current art board and use the command and you will see the text as part of the other type. You can do the same such as duplicate the text, move it around, re-size it and rotate it as well as change the color etc. You can overlap the text multiple times with different colors. You can also use different fonts as well as spacing etc. You can also use a rectangle or circle etc as a container or as the child for the type parent. You can also end up with text on text etc multiple times and making some very complex word art in seconds. You can also apply styles etc as well add other shapes into the design and it is all still live.
This is very similar, actually seems to be the inverse. You can simply drag the layer down on to the entry below (or above) and instead of inserted inside, it will be clipping the artwork. If you have a rectangle as the parent and the child (circle say) and you drag the circle into the rectangle on the layers panel, the rectangle size will now be constrained by the circle and you will see only the circle part of the rectangle (which maybe the interior or the exterior). With the child selected, you can move it around. If you select the rectangle and move it around and re-size, the parent and the child will resize. If you go up to the lock children in the control bar then the child will now be stationary and you can then move the parent independent of the child. You can turn it off if you no longer need it. You can also clip the parent / child relation of any paths inserted as well. When using the clipping you will see a little crop icon appear on the child to signify the difference.
You can set the insertion mode for paths. If you have a path and then go to the insertion mode in the control bar and set to the first (behind) then when you create your path it will be placed behind the existing one. If you click the second item then it is the default which is in front of the path. You can also click the third and any insertions are now inserted into the path and the inserted will be clipped by the parent.