To create this Photoshop zoom burst color effect, you don't need guides but I always find them useful when I am creating a design using paths and added points. You can set up a quick set of guides by using the view menu and new guide layout command and set columns and rows to 10 and 10.
Go to the toolbar and select the pen tool thought this may be in a different position depending on customization of the tools. Go to the top left and set the options to shape layer. Set the hue / saturation / brightness etc for the first triangle, you can change the it to different one or perhaps alternate them and so on or perhaps use a load of purples or greens etc
Go to the edge and click one of the guide crossover points with the pen tool. For the next point go to the center of the guides and click and then go back to the edge and drop down a cell.
Drop the next cell below and click and then click in the center again and then go to back to the edge and click the point in the cell above the first point and change the hue / saturation / brightness via the shape properties in the properties panel and then go to the next set of cells and repeat and repeat this for all the cell groups around the edge to the center
You should now end up with multiple paths all the way around. You can select the above and duplicate and flip horizontal and vertical etc and quickly fill all the other cells, though you can do them all individually as well
They are all shape layers and you can select each of them using the layers panel and then double click the entry in the layers panel and change the fill. To make it easier to see the result of the pattern, you can now go to the view menu and set pattern preview to ON. You can also clear the guides now via the view menu and clear guides. You can, if you wish, have the same matching red / green / blue etc on each side of the triangles so the the triangle on the left side matches the one on the right side. Likewise the top matches the bottom so the tiles will then be seamless.
You can also add an adjustment layer on top of the design and via the properties panel, all can be changed such as using the HSL adjustment or the Black and white adjustment or LUTs or balance etc
Select all the layers via the layers panel and then goto the layer menu and select the smart objects and convert to smart object. You can then add a rectangle or any other vector shape as a shape layer and drag that design below the current pattern artwork. With the pattern artwork selected, go to the layer menu and click create clipping mask for the vector layer and you will now have the design reduced to the mask. You can manipulate the mask (it is a vector design so you can edit the points etc) and you can also manipulate the contents (the triangle burst design) as well as add layer styles etc to the artwork
The design does not need to have all the paths pointing to the center. You can select the center point using the direct selection tool and then re-position the artwork in multiple ways.
You can also apply effects to the design by turning all the layers into a single object as a smart object via the layer menu and smart objects and convert command and then go to the filter menu and add a smart filter such as a blur. You can change the settings at any point by double clicking the smart filter entry in the layers panel.
At any point you can define this via the edit menu and define pattern command and then use it in the new fill layer as well as layer styles etc